Signs of Anemia
Anemia is a collective name. A number of pathological conditions are hidden under it, common in which there will be a low level of hemoglobin in the blood. The causes and mechanisms of anemia are diverse.
Anemia can be detected by a blood test, and the type of anemia is determined by it.
There are also a number of external signs by which anemia can be suspected. Some of them are common, characteristic of all types of anemia. The other part will indicate a certain type of pathology.
Common signs of anemia
1. Due to the lowered level of hemoglobin, the skin becomes pale. Mucous membranes are also discolored. But the shade of the skin may vary depending on the type of anemia: pure white, grayish, yellowish.
2. All types of anemia are characterized by a constant feeling of fatigue, general weakness, decreased performance, and a desire to sleep. This is caused by oxygen starvation of body tissues.
3. With anemia, the brain suffers from a lack of oxygen. This is manifested by dizziness, tinnitus, flickering flies in front of the eyes, headaches.
4. On the cardiovascular system, a lack of oxygen is reflected by shortness of breath with physical exertion, a frequent pulse (the number of heart contractions increases).
5. With anemia, appetite is usually reduced. Sometimes even an aversion to food develops. On the other hand, unusual taste preferences arise, such as the desire to eat chalk.
Due to low hemoglobin levels, the skin becomes pale
External signs of anemia increase gradually, and many simply do not notice them, attributing them to fatigue, age, etc. And such symptoms, which last a long time, should alert and serve as a reason to donate blood for analysis. This is especially true for those at risk.
Who is at risk
The main cause of anemia is a lack of iron in the body (of all cases of anemia, iron deficiency is 90%).
The body receives iron mainly from meat, therefore, an increased risk of developing this type of anemia is:
people following strict diets;
those in whose diet are not enough meat products;
More iron is required for pregnant women, as part of it takes the fetus, and for nursing mothers who lose iron with breast milk. Therefore, the likelihood of developing anemia in them increases.
Anemia can be caused by prolonged bleeding, so at risk are:
women with profuse and prolonged menstruation, uterine bleeding (endometriosis);
suffering from hemorrhoids;
patients with peptic ulcer, intestinal polyps;
those with frequent nosebleeds, etc .;
regular blood donors.
Iron deficiency may occur due to the fact that it is simply not absorbed or poorly absorbed by the body. Is it possible:
with some diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, in particular Crohn’s disease, celiac disease, atrophy of the gastric mucosa, cancer, cystic fibrosis;
after operations to remove the stomach, intestines.
Anemia is often observed in alcohol abusers.
Alcoholic beverages increase the risk of anemia
Some medications can help reduce iron content: lowering acidity, iron-binding, NSAIDs.
For people with chronic pathologies of internal organs that occur in severe form, the development of chronic anemia is a danger.
Some forms of anemia, such as sickle cell, thalassemia, hypoplastic anemia, are inherited. If parents suffer from these diseases or are carriers of mutated genes, then there is a possibility, sometimes high enough, that a child will be born with a similar pathology. To identify the risk of hereditary anemia in the unborn child, parents need to undergo a medical genetic examination.
Anyone at risk should in no case ignore the manifestations of incipient anemia. Otherwise, it will go into a severe form, and deterioration can occur suddenly.
Signs of Severe Anemia
1. Developing hypoxia of the brain causes constant fainting.
2. The cardiovascular system responds to oxygen deficiency by severe shortness of breath, which manifests itself even at rest. Heart failure begins.
3. The shape of the face changes: it becomes puffy, the color is earthy gray.
Anemia causes hair to fade
4. Hair grow dull, split and begin to fall out. Nails suffer: they exfoliate, break, transverse strips appear on them. In severe anemia, the nail bends in the opposite direction.
5. The muscles weaken, especially the muscles of the hands. There are difficulties with the implementation of ordinary household chores.
6. Inflamed tongue, red border of the lips. Jabs appear on the lips.
7. The digestive system is disturbed – diarrhea or constipation occurs
8. There is a sore throat, dry cough.
9. There is pain during urination, urinary incontinence is possible.
Consequences of anemia
If you ignore all these manifestations and do not treat anemia, then the consequences can be very serious.