Anemia: types, manifestations, consequences
What is anemia?
Anemia, or colloquially anemia, is a pathological condition characterized by a decrease in hemoglobin in the blood.
Anemia itself is not a disease, but a consequence of certain diseases and conditions of the body. In medicine, it is defined as a syndrome (a set of symptoms).
The causes of anemia are different, as are the mechanisms of its formation. But with all types of anemia, the amount of hemoglobin is below normal, so anemia is established by a blood test.
Anemia is classified for the reasons that caused them.
How to determine the type of anemia? Also for blood tests – each type of anemia gives its own indicators. In addition, doctors take into account the specific manifestations of each type of anemia.
Acute posthemorrhagic anemia
Its cause is blood loss caused by injury and the loss of a large volume of blood at once.
dizziness and fainting;
sharply pale skin;
low body temperature;
vomiting is possible.
With a 25% decrease in blood volume, hemorrhagic shock develops. With the loss of half the volume of blood there is a threat to life.
It can be caused by several reasons, and the most common of them is that little iron enters the body (diet, starvation, as well as an increased need for this element, for example, during pregnancy).
Other factors include:
iron is not absorbed in the intestines (pathology of the digestive tract);
there is constant bleeding (uterine, ulcerative, due to hemorrhoids).
weakness, often shortness of breath;
atypical taste, altered sense of smell;
thinning and brittleness of hair and nails;
Iron deficiency anemia is manifested by a lack of iron
The child has a delay in physical development and a violation of mental abilities.
Due to a lack of oxygen, cardiac, hepatic, and heart failure develop, and the function of the kidneys and other organs is impaired.
The risk of infections increases. They proceed hard, give relapses and complications.
In severe cases, anemic coma develops due to an acute lack of oxygen for the brain.
Iron refractory anemia
This type of anemia is characterized by the fact that iron is contained in the blood, but is not included in hemoglobin. The disease can be hereditary. Only men are affected by the hereditary form.
At the heart of the disease is a lack of enzymes involved in the assimilation of iron by the heme (heme is the non-protein part of hemoglobin).
Lead poisoning is also possible.
fatigue and drowsiness;
The main complication is hemosiderosis, iron deposition in all organs. The heart, spleen, liver, brain, etc. can be affected. Hemosiderosis has serious consequences (heart failure, kidney failure, enlargement and tightening of the spleen, liver).
B12 deficiency anemia
A lack of vitamin B12 occurs when it is insufficiently supplied with food, as well as poor absorption due to gastrointestinal tract diseases, worm infections, and certain medications.
With anemia B12, vitamins are not absorbed by food.
difficulty swallowing food;
atrophic changes in the digestive system;
Folic Deficiency Anemia
Deficiency of vitamin B9 (another name for folic acid) is either due to the fact that it is insufficient in food consumed, or it is poorly absorbed in the intestines.
dizziness, shortness of breath, general weakness, fatigue;
pale skin, constant feeling of cold;
brittle and exfoliating nails, split ends;
Due to hypercoagulation (increased blood coagulation), blood clots may form.
With Vitamin B9 Deficiency, a Baby Can Be Born With Malformations
Men can develop infertility due to abnormalities in sperm formation.
Women can give birth to a child with developmental disabilities.
Sickle cell anemia
This is a type of hemolytic anemia, which is characterized by increased destruction of red blood cells. With sickle cell anemia, abnormal hemoglobin molecules are formed, which is why red blood cells acquire an unusual shape for the sickle (hence the name). Such red blood cells are rapidly destroyed, as well as clogging up the capillaries.
This is a hereditary pathology caused by a gene mutation. A child gets sick if she receives mutated genes from both parents. If an abnormal gene is inherited from one parent, the child becomes the carrier.
fatigue, shortness of breath;
unexpected bouts of acute pain;
blood in the urine.
In children, there is a delay in physical development, later puberty.