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Anaphylactic shock: what to do before the ambulance arrives?

Anaphylactic shock: what to do before the ambulance arrives?
Anaphylaxis, also called anaphylactic shock, is an allergic reaction that proceeds extremely severely and is deadly.

How does anaphylactic shock develop?
It occurs when the body meets the allergen for the second time. When an allergen substance first enters the body, the immune system reacts to it, producing specific substances – immunoglobulins. The so-called sensitization of the body.

When the same allergen comes into contact with the body a second time, it is recognized by immunoglobulins and the immune cells in response emit special substances – inflammatory mediators that give an allergic reaction: itching, swelling, and a drop in pressure.

Anaphylaxis develops when mediators are thrown in large volumes. A hyperreaction of the immune system occurs, which proceeds very rapidly and disrupts the functioning of all organs.

In a severe case, without timely assistance, a person will die.

What causes anaphylaxis
Any substance can act as an allergen.

Vaccine components are allergens
Medications. It:

antibiotics, in particular penicillins and cephalosporins;
muscle relaxants – serve to relax the muscles;
vaccines – allergens are additional components of vaccines.
Antibiotics and muscle relaxants can be found in foods, such as meat.

Bites of snakes and insects. The cause of anaphylaxis is the bites of wasps and bees, multiple bites are especially dangerous.

Products The most allergenic include:

fish (sturgeon and salmon), seafood;
chicken eggs;
cow’s milk;
food additives (flavor enhancers, preservatives, artificial colors).
Pollen. It can be pollen of herbs, flowers, trees.

Helminths. Pinworms, pinworms and toxocaras are “to blame” for the appearance of anaphylaxis.

Intense muscle effort. More often they cause anaphylaxis, if combined with certain foods, medicines. Sometimes hard work itself or sports training leads to anaphylaxis.

What are the signs of anaphylactic shock?
The reaction after the penetration of the allergen occurs quickly: within a few minutes, a maximum of one hour. And sometimes everything happens instantly.

Choking with anaphylactic shock
The reaction takes place the more severely, the sooner after contacting with an allergen substance it begins.
The first signs of anaphylaxis:
panic fear of death;
rash, itching, fever;
Swelling develops – swelling of the face, legs, genitals.
In the future appear:

dizziness, weakness, loss of consciousness;
shortness of breath, feeling of suffocation.
pressure reduction.
Anaphylactic shock proceeds differently:

breathing is disturbed – bronchospasm, narrowing of the larynx, angioedema (Quincke);
the functioning of the gastrointestinal tract is violated – vomiting, diarrhea, discomfort and pain in the stomach;
brain damage – convulsive muscle contractions, vomiting that does not provide relief, involuntary urination, loss of consciousness;
cardiovascular symptoms – heart pain, tachycardia, rapid decrease in pressure;
general form (typical) – accompanied by all symptoms.
It doesn’t matter how much allergen the body received. The smallest dose is enough for a severe reaction to develop.
Relief for anaphylactic shock
In this extremely dangerous condition, only the right ones, without delay, the actions of others can prevent a tragedy. That is why with anaphylactic shock, one must be able to provide first aid. This may save a person’s life.

Action algorithm

1. Stop exposure to the substance that caused the shock.

If shock caused the medicine – stop administering it. If an insect has bitten, take out the sting and apply cold to this place. When reacting to food, remove its residues from the mouth.

Apply chill to the bite
2. Call an ambulance.

Ambulance should be called even when the person’s condition is not too serious. Shock can occur in two phases, the reaction can begin again after 1-3 days.

3. Put the patient on his back with legs raised above the head.

4. To prevent vomiting in the respiratory tract, turn the patient’s head to the side.

5. Provide the patient with fresh air.

Open the doors and windows, unfasten the clothes on the injured person, free his neck and chest so that he can breathe easier.

6. Clean your mouth by removing anything that interferes with breathing.

If vomiting occurs, remove mucus. Mouthguards, prostheses are preferably removed.

7. Check breathing, palpitations.

If there is no pulse, perform an indirect heart massage. When a person does not breathe, artificial respiration will be ineffective due to severe swelling of the larynx. Adrenaline (intramuscularly 0.1% solution) can save the patient. He is introduced to any place without even taking off his clothes.

There are syringe pens that contain a single dose of adrenaline, which the patient himself can use. If a person has already had cases of anaphylaxis, he should always have such a syringe pen with him and be able to use it.

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