Thyrotoxicosis: symptoms, causes, treatment
Thyrotoxicosis, otherwise hyperthyroidism, is a pathological condition characterized by the fact that a large number of thyroid hormones are produced in the body by the thyroid gland.
Causes of thyrotoxicosis
Thyrotoxicosis in itself is not a disease, it is a consequence and manifestation of diseases in which
1) the thyroid gland produces excess hormones;
2) gland cells are destroyed, and hormones enter the bloodstream.
Thyrotoxicosis is most often associated with a disease such as diffuse toxic goiter. This is a disease of an autoimmune nature: the immune system gives the command to develop substances that stimulate the production of hormones. The thyroid gland thus increases. This pathology is also known as Bazedov’s disease and Graves’s disease. Most often, young people are affected by this disease.
Toxic adenoma is a tumor of a benign nature, several nodes may appear on the gland, then they talk about multinodular toxic goiter. The nodes produce an excessive number of thyroid hormones, and this causes thyrotoxicosis. This pathology often affects women after 55 years.
Thyrotropinoma is a benign, rare pituitary tumor that also contributes to hyperthyroidism.
Excessive production of thyroid hormones is caused by thyroiditis of various nature – inflammatory diseases of the thyroid gland. Gland tissue is also destroyed by taking certain medications.
Symptoms of thyrotoxicosis
An excess of thyroid hormones affects the functioning of many systems and organs. If we talk about the cardiovascular system, then it causes a heartbeat, arrhythmias, heart failure, hypertension.
The nervous system responds to an increased level of thyroid hormones with tearfulness, frequent mood swings, and irritability.
Frequent mood swings
In the musculoskeletal system under the influence of a large number of thyroid hormones, muscle weakness and bone fragility occur.
The genital area is also exposed to excessive amounts of hormones. She responds with a decrease in sexual desire, menstrual irregularities in women and worsening erections in men.
Thyrotoxicosis is manifested by symptoms such as:
sharp weight loss;
feeling of heat.
If the thyroid gland is enlarged, difficulty swallowing is possible. A sign of diffuse toxic goiter is bulging eyes (exophthalmos).
If such symptoms appear, consult a specialist.
Treatment of thyrotoxicosis
The method of treatment depends on what caused the pathological condition.
With Basedova’s disease, thyrostatic pharmaceuticals that reduce the production of hormones are used. They need to be treated for a long time, up to one and a half years.
Surgical treatment is also used: either all of the gland, or part of it, is removed.
Radioactive iodine is used, it is taken through the mouth. Iodine destroys the tissue of the gland, leading to the termination of its work.
What is dangerous thyrotoxicosis
If thyrotoxicosis is not treated, serious heart complications can occur: hypertension, arrhythmia, ischemic heart disease. A serious complication is a thyrotoxic crisis, in which the heart rhythm and the central nervous system are disturbed.
To avoid such complications, when signs of thyrotoxicosis appear, you need to be examined and undergo treatment prescribed by a doctor.